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To test whether changes in reading skill were accompanied by measurable changes in white matter structure, we first examined MD and FA as a function of intervention time (hours) within the set of white matter tracts considered to be crucial for skilled reading Fine Jewelry Genuine Yellow Citrine 10K Gold 61mm Stud Earrings vQbbrjo
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and which showed significant relationships with pre-intervention reading skill in the current sample: the left AF, left ILF, and posterior CC. Intervention-driven tissue changes were evident within the AF and ILF but not within the CC: Specifically, mean diffusivity (MD) decreased as a function of intervention hours within the left AF ( F (1,77) = 8.46, p  = 0.0047, linear mixed effect model with a fixed effect of intervention time, in hours, and a random effect of subject) and the left ILF ( F (1,77) = 7.28, p  = 0.0086), but not within the CC ( F (1,77) = 2.37, p  = 0.13). Subject motion did not change over time (Supplementary Fig.) and including subject motion as a covariate in the model did not change the results: MD decreased as a function of intervention hours within the left AF ( F (1,76) = 10.48, p  = 0.0018) and the left ILF ( F (1,76) = 9.53, p  = 0.0028), but not within the CC ( F (1,76) = 2.11, p  = 0.15). The decline in MD was accompanied by a linear increase in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left AF ( F (1,76) = 3.98, p  = 0.050, fixed effect of intervention hours and a random effect of subject, with subject motion included as a covariate, as above) and the left ILF ( F (1,76) = 8.82, p  = 0.0040) but not in the CC( F (1,76) = 0.24, p  = 0.62). Finally, since changes in white matter properties could theoretically follow a nonlinear trajectory, we tested a model that included a quadratic term for each tract and parameter. For MD in each tract, the linear model outperformed the nonlinear model (evaluated using Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) , ), and no significant nonlinear effects were observed: AF linear: F (1,76) = 8.72, p  = 0.0041, AF quadratic: F (1,76) = 0.31, p  = 0.58, ILF linear: F (1,76) = 7.53, p  = 0.0076, ILF quadratic: F (1,76) = 0.33, p  = 0.57, CC linear: F (1,76) = 3.083, p  = 0.083, CC quadratic: F (1,76) = 3.90, p  = 0.052. In contrast, we observed significant quadratic effects in FA for the left AF only: AF linear: F (1,76) = 3.87, p  = 0.053, AF quadratic: F (1,76) = 7.77, p  = 0.0067, ILF linear: F (1,76) = 8.85, p  = 0.0039, ILF quadratic: F (1,76) = 3.20, p  = 0.078, CC linear: F (1,76) = 0.31, p  = 0.58, CC quadratic: F (1,76) = 2.047, p  = 0.16.

Like the reading outcomes reported above, intervention-driven changes in MD were specific to the intervention group, as indicated by a significant group (intervention vs. control) by time (days) interaction. As above, we substitute “days” for “intervention hours” to give a meaningful predictor for both the intervention and control subjects. In the left AF, we found a significant main effect of group ( F (1,125) = 7.047, p  = 0.009) but not of time ( F (1,125) = 1.033, p  = 0.31) and a significant group-by-time interaction ( F (1,125) = 4.97, p  = 0.028), consistent with a decrease in MD over time that was specific to the intervention subjects. Similarly, in the ILF, we saw a significant main effect of group ( F (1,125) = 10.29, p  = 0.0017) but not of time ( F (1,125) = 3.72, p  = 0.056) and a significant group-by-time interaction ( F (1,125) = 9.53, p  = 0.0025). In the CC, we saw a significant main effect of group ( F (1,125) = 6.69, p  = 0.011) but not of time ( F (1,125) = 0.90 p  = 0.34) and no significant group-by-time interaction ( F (1,125) = 0.027, p  = 0.87), consistent with the stability of MD values in this tract in all subjects. For FA, we observed a different pattern of results: In the AF, we saw no significant main effect of group (F(1,125) = 0.31, p  = 0.58) or time (F(1,125) = 0.055, p  = 0.82) and no significant group-by-time interaction (F(1,125) = 0.36, p  = 0.55). In the ILF, we saw no significant main effect of group ( F (1,125) = 0.0015, p  = 0.97) or time ( F (1,125) = 1.93, p  = 0.17) and no significant group-by-time interaction ( F (1,125) = 0.15, p  = 0.70). In the CC, we saw no significant main effect of group ( F (1,125) = 0.23, p  = 0.63) or time ( F (1,125) = 0.86, p  = 0.36) and no significant group-by-time interaction ( F (1,125) = 0.35, p  = 0.56). As shown in Supplementary Table, the group-by-time interaction approached significance for the quadratic term for FA in the left AF and ILF, but not for MD in the AF or ILF, or for either parameter in the CC.

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Returning to the United States After Travel Abroad with Pets

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By Charles M. Hendrix, DVM, PhD, Professor, Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University

Returning to the United States After Travel Abroad with Pets

A multitude of diseases and parasites might be encountered in a foreign environment. The disease-causing organisms that animals may harbor have the potential to produce serious consequences. For example, in 2003 an outbreak of monkeypox in people in the United States was traced to Gambian giant rats, which carried the virus from Africa. The rats infected prairie dogs intended for the pet market, and the prairie dogs, in turn, infected people.

When citizens return to the United States, their pets—which may be infected with foreign diseases or parasites—are also presented for re-entry into the country. Dogs, cats, and certain other pets are subject to measures designed to prevent the introduction and spread of parasites and rabies and other zoonotic diseases (diseases that humans can acquire from infected animals). If an animal is found to have one of these diseases, the case must be reported to the appropriate state authorities, who in turn, will notify the proper federal agencies.

Upon arrival in the US, owners must schedule another physical examination by a veterinarian. This examination should also include blood tests. Pets may need to be dipped in a medicated solution to resolve any infestations that may have occurred while the animal was in transit. There may be additional restrictions if you enter the Unites States through Puerto Rico, Guam, or Hawaii. Before returning through these ports, travelers should contact animal health inspectors for additional information.

The general re-entry requirement is that all dogs and cats imported into the US be visually inspected by US Public Health Service personnel. Only those animals that are free of any evidence of infectious disease may be admitted. Animals showing signs of illness such as emaciation, skin sores, disturbances of the nervous system, jaundice, or diarrhea, must be examined, tested, or treated at the owner’s expense by a licensed veterinarian designated by the agency.

Cats are subject to the general requirements for entry as stated above. Rabies vaccination of cats is not a federal requirement; however, some states require vaccination prior to entry.

Regardless of their age, dogs may be admitted to the US without restriction if they appear healthy and have been in a rabies-free area for at least the 6 months immediately preceding arrival in the US or since birth. The US Public Health Service provides a current list of rabies-free areas.

Dogs arriving from countries other than those listed as rabies-free may be admitted to the US if they are 3 months of age or older, free of any evidence of infectious disease, and accompanied by a valid certificate of rabies vaccination. All 3 requirements must be met. Vaccination certificates must identify the dog, be signed by a licensed veterinarian, and specify the expiration date, which must be after the date of arrival. If the expiration date is not indicated on the certificate, the certificate is considered to be valid for only 1 year from the date of issue. Vaccination certificates should also specify the date of vaccination, which must be at least 30 days before the arrival date.

For dogs that are at least 3 months old, are subject to the rabies vaccination requirement, and appear to be healthy but do not have a valid rabies certificate as outlined above, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Form 75.37 must be completed (generally at the point of entry) and submitted to the appropriate Quarantine Station for distribution. The form may be signed by the owner or agent.

The US Public Health Service may release the dog if the owner agrees to place it in confinement for 30 days immediately upon arrival at the destination and to have it vaccinated against rabies within 4 days. Confinement is defined as restriction of an animal to a building or other enclosure, in isolation from other animals and people except for contact necessary for its care. If the dog is allowed out of the enclosure, the owner must muzzle the dog and use a leash.

The CDC Form 75.37 must also be prepared if the dog is older than 3 months of age and has a certificate showing a vaccination administered less than 30 days before arrival. The owner is required to confine the dog for the remainder of the 30 days.

Finally, Form 75.37 must be prepared for dogs younger than 3 months of age at the time of entry or re-entry. The owner is required to confine the dog until it is 3 months of age and then have it immunized against rabies. The dog must then be confined for an additional 30 days. A vaccination certificate presented for a puppy less than 3 months of age cannot be accepted.

The USDA should be contacted for requirements specific to dogs used for working livestock to prevent importation of species, which are tapeworms associated with the development of hydatid cysts in livestock and humans. Current regulations should always be checked in advance.

The CDC does not regulate importation of horses into the US unless the horse is known to carry a disease transmissible to humans. The USDA requires quarantine of horses for various time periods (3 to 60 days), depending on which country the horse is entering from. The owner or transporter should contact the port veterinarian at one of the USDA Animal Import Centers to reserve space at the quarantine facility.

Returning to the United States After Travel Abroad with Pets

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Central American migrants look through the border wall near the ocean in Tijuana, Mexico, in April.

Central American migrants look through the border wall near the ocean in Tijuana, Mexico, in April.

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Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced Monday that the Departments of Justice and Homeland Security will partner to prosecute anyone illegally crossing the southwest border and separate children from parents.

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"If you cross this border unlawfully, then we will prosecute you. It's that simple," said Sessions. "If you smuggle illegal aliens across our border, then we will prosecute you. If you are smuggling a child, then we will prosecute you and that child will be separated from you as required by law. If you don't like that, then don't smuggle children over our border."

Sessions' announcement comes as immigration officials are seeing a new surge in illegal border crossings.

As NPR's John Burnett reported:

"New figures show a mini-surge in March — a 200 percent increase in border apprehensions compared to last year. Agents detained nearly 40,000 unauthorized immigrants. Most were families or kids traveling alone from Central America."

Immigrant advocates say such families are fleeing violence in Central America and seeking asylum in the United States.

"We don't think the U.S. should be prosecuting asylum seekers, attempting to deter asylum seekers," said Lee Gelernt, deputy director of the ACLU's immigrants' Rights Project. "We certainly don't think they should be prosecuting families with little children so the end result is these little children are sent off by themselves."

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Trump Administration Ends Temporary Protected Status For Hondurans

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Mexico Deploys A Formidable Deportation Force Near Its Own Southern Border

"These are children who have already suffered the trauma of violence and persecution in their native countries and the arduous journey to seek safety," said Margaret Huang, executive director of Amnesty International USA. "Why in the world would the U.S. government institute a policy that would compound their distress by separating them from their families, claiming it's for their own good?"

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initiate

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2 : a person who is instructed or adept in some special field

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initiate

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initiate

ini·ti·ate \ i-ˈni-shē-ˌāt \
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2 : to admit into a club by special ceremonies
3 : to teach (someone) the basic facts about something

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